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Sher Shah Suri: The Afghan chief who ruled India knowing the weaknesses of the Mughals and the Afghans

About 500 years ago today, in the year 1528, the capital of India, Agra, was bustling. Mughal emperor Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babar returned to Agra after the conquest of Chandiri and Babar’s rule over India was established.

Sher Shah Suri: The Afghan chief who ruled India knowing the weaknesses of the Mughals and the Afghans

King Babar’s heart is troubled by the contentment of his face and the manner in which he eats, and he tells his prime minister, Mir Khalifa, the brother of the late Afghan Prime Minister Shah Junaid, that It is known that this will cause disturbance, ‘He should be arrested immediately.’

On the other hand, this Afghan chief saw the king looking at him with malignant eyes and talking to his minister. Due to the distance he could not hear the words but Jahandida Sardar understood that it was about him and the intention of the king was not right.

So after finishing his meal he left and then he left Agra without telling anyone. This chief was none other than Sher Shah Suri, the Pathan who forced the Mughals to chew the cud and expelled them from India.

Moin Ahmad Nizami, a professor of South Asian Islam at the Oxford Center for Islamic Studies, talks about Sher Shah Suri and says that Babar’s fears began to rise after his death and ten years later he came true as a prophecy. When Sher Shah Suri expelled Babar’s successor and Mughal ruler Humayun from India.

Sher Shah Suri ruled northern India completely for only five years (17 May 1540 to 22 May 1545) but he left an indelible mark on history.

In which his fine arrangement is a shining beacon from which the kings who came after him, especially the Mughal emperor Akbar, got guidance and nurtured his style of patriotism.

The rupee run by them is in vogue today not only in India and Pakistan but also in many other countries. The rupee was already in use but its amount was not fixed.

Early life conditions
Historians do not agree on the birth of Sher Shah but the public opinion is that he was born in 1486 in Hissar, today’s Indian state of Haryana. Thus he was about three years younger than King Babar but in many places it is said that he was his age.

Sher Shah’s real name was Farid Khan and he was Hassan Khan’s first son. Hassan Khan’s father Ibrahim Khan came to India during the reign of Sultan Bahlol Lodhi and acquired another jagir.

Farid Khan’s father, Hassan Khan, took a job at the high office of Kalkapur and at the behest of Sultan Bahlol, Wazir Umar Khan Sarwani, who granted several villages in the pargana Shahabad to Hassan Khan as a jagir. During the reign of Sikandar Lodhi, when Jamal Khan’s Iqbal rose, he appointed Hassan Khan as an officer of 500 cavalry besides the estate of his father Ibrahim Khan. Grant

Hassan Khan began to live with his son Farid Khan for the happiness of his beloved Nazar wife, which Farid Khan realized and he went to Jaunpur Jamal Khan, where he spent his youth in pursuit of education and Thanks to this he founded a great empire.

Kalka Ranjan Qanungo, an important historian who traces the history of Sher Shah Suri, wrote, describing Sher Shah’s scholarly passion and the nature of being widely read, wrote: On which the illiterate brave people like Shivaji, Haider Ali and Ranjit Singh get the happiness of becoming emperors by rising above the ordinary level. We do not find any other person in the history of India who, in his early life, founded a government while being a non-military.

Farid Khan’s early circumstances and the behavior of his stepmother had led him to reflect and ponder. Many historians say that if they had not had a stepmother in their lives, they would not have had such determination and would not have had the flexibility in their nature to guarantee their development.

Farid Khan was entrusted with the management of several towns by his father Hassan Khan.

Farid Khan, realizing the delicacy of the matter, announced his resignation and took a different path. At that time India was ruled by Ibrahim Lodhi but there was insurgency in many areas and after the death of the rebel Afghan chief Darya Khan Lohani his son Bihar Khan Lohani declared his independent government.

Farid Khan’s parganas were part of Bihar Khan’s empire, so it did not take long for them to realize that their survival was with Bihar Khan.

Historian Vidya Bhaskar, referring to Farid Khan’s condition at that time, wrote in her book ‘Sher Shah Suri’ that ‘Farid Khan was by nature a loyal, tough and selfless man, he did not hesitate to decide that Bihar Khan His only advantage is in serving Lohani … Bihar Khan soon came to know that Farid Khan was capable, hardworking, loyal and devoted as well as reliable in all respects.

As a result, the friendship between the two grew stronger and stronger. Meanwhile, Bihar Khan proclaimed himself king by taking the title of Sultan Muhammad and issued his coin by declaring Bihar an independent province.

Shortly before this, in the first battle of Panipat, Babar had defeated Ibrahim Lodhi’s large army and captured the throne of India.

Farid Khan went hunting with Bihar Khan once during the same time.

They were walking in the forest when suddenly a lion came towards them and the lion jumped towards Farid. Voices of welcome and applause began to be heard from all sides.

Bihar Khan was so impressed with Farid Khan’s bravery that he gave him the title of Sher Khan and appointed him as his son’s mentor. People started calling Farid Khan by the name of Sher Khan and after that this became his identity.

It is said that the moods of kings change on the tongues of villains.

So after the proclamation of the reign of Bihar Khan, Babar set out to suppress the East, so Humayun offered his name for the expedition Khan lost his confidence and handed over his estate to his half-brothers and reached Junepur after assuring peace to Junaid Barlas, the governor of the Mughal government.

After the battle of Khanwa (Kanwa) on March 16, 1527, Sher Khan along with Junaid Barlas reached Babar’s court where he served in the Mughal army for about one and half years. Meanwhile, at the request of Junaid and the Prime Minister, King Babar granted Sher Khan his estate in Sahasram.

But that move of Sher Khan on Babar’s table caused concern in Babar’s heart but here it is necessary to explain the eating of fish which can upset anyone so why not a person like King Babar would be worried.

Professor Soban Saeed at Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti University in Lucknow, quoting Persian dictionaries, said that there is a difference of opinion about Mahicha. In one place it is said to be something like a fern made from soybeans and milk, while in another place it is said to be a dish made by putting meat or fish in flour. Both are eaten with a spoon, not with a dagger or a dagger.

He said that Khan Sahib’s anger has been mentioned in many places, sometimes jokingly and sometimes really. He was very quick and he was very warm but some historians call him understandable and settled.

The bravado or the pulse of Mughal weakness?
Abbas Khan Sarwani, a courtier appointed to record the history of Afghans at the court of King Akbar, was related to Sher Shah. He wrote that he was enthusiastic from the beginning and was keen to get government from the Mughals while other Afghans considered him arrogant and boastful.

They call Sher Shah Alexander II. He writes that in the campaign of Chanderi, Alexander II (Sher Shah) was with the army of King Zal Subhani Babar. Sheikh Ibrahim Sarwani came to me and said let’s go to Sher Khan Soor and he talks more than his rank so much that people laugh.

We rode to his camp. Speaking on the occasion, Sheikh Ibrahim said that it is difficult for the country of India to fall into the hands of Pathans again and leave Mughal India. Sher Khan said to Sheikh Muhammad, be a witness of what happens between me and Sheikh Ibrahim. If my fortune favors me, I will drive the Mughals out of India in a few days. ‘

Conquest of Chinar and successive marriages
Sher Khan’s second major victory was the fort of Chinar which was earlier conquered by Babar but he could not establish his control over it and Taj Khan accepted his obedience and maintained his power over this fort.

Taj Khan fell in love with a fairy beauty queen and married her but they did not have any children while the queen already had three sons who were even more disgusted with their father than the lad queen that his father Was made a puppet.

So a son attacked to get rid of Lad Ladka. When Taj Khan found out, he came out with a sword. According to Abbas Khan Sarwani, he said, “You have attacked Lad. Now taste my sword.” The son thought that he was about to die, so he ran away with a sword wound but Taj Khan could not survive.

After that, chaos broke out in Chinar fort. Sher Khan had his eye on this fort as it was one of the few forts in the country at that time and the conquests of the East were on his way.

Sher Shah not only strengthened the fort of Sahasram, he also built the fort of Rohtas which is now in Jhelum district of Punjab province of Pakistan while Rohtas is also a place in Bihar where Sher Shah built. Apart from this, many buildings of the old fort of Delhi are also his memorial.

Sher Shah was in his 60s when he laid siege to Kalingar Fort in Bundelkhand against the Rajputs of Mahoba. Abbas Sarwani states that he was killed on Friday, May 22, 1545, by an explosive device hitting the wall of the fort because there were many ammunition shells where he was standing, including Sher Shah and many others. Others were killed, but one of their children survived the blast.

It is said that Sher Shah laid siege to the fort of Kalingar and made such a high ridge in front of this fort that he could hunt whatever was seen inside the fort.

But the reason for the delay in taking the fort was a slave girl dancing in the harem of Raja Kirat Singh. (They will think) If I take the fort by force, then Raja Kirat Singh will take over again and burn this slave girl. ‘

In his note, Mazhar Ali Khan Villa, the Urdu translator of the history of Sher Shahi, wrote: For the sake of a dancing girl, he extended the siege and finally lost his life.

Sher Shah’s shrine is in Sahasram, built by his son Saleem Shah on the shores of an artificial lake, which is still a tourist attraction.

It should be noted that Sher Shah established his government from Assam to Multan and Sindh and from Kashmir to the hills of Sadpara and introduced a uniform system of government. Divided the whole empire into governments and parganas which are now commissioners and districts.

From the beginning, Sher Shah attributed the decline of the government to lack of justice and whenever he got the upper hand, he tried to establish justice system and established courts in every city.

They built a highway from Bengal to Afghanistan known as the Grand Trunk Road (GT Road). Not only this, they built roads from Agra to Burhanpur in the south and second from Agra to Jodhpur and Chittor and third from Lahore to Multan and built about 1700 caravanserai on these roads where separate arrangements for accommodation and food for Hindus and Muslims were made. Were

There were hot and cold water arrangements. The inn also provided food and drink for the horses, and passengers received free food from the government. A mosque was built in the inn and an imam and muezzin were appointed in it. There was a watchman to protect the passengers’ belongings and they had a manager on them.

Sher Shah had also planted trees along the road so that travelers could rest under its shade in summer. Taxes from several nearby villages were devoted to the arrangement of the inn.

Arrangements were made for the protection of the highways and the Amil or Shaqdar was ordered that if theft or trespassing took place anywhere in their area and the culprits were not known then the Muqadam (bee) of the nearby village must be arrested. And they should be compensated for the loss but if they help in finding the culprits then they should not be punished.

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